Analysis of competitive antagonism when this property occurs as part of a pharmacological resultant
In this paper, pharmacological resultant is defined as the net effect of a single compound resulting from the simultaneous expression of two or more specific actions.
The principles of concentration-ratio analysis are extended to develop a method for detecting and quantifying competitive antagonism when this property is a component of a pharmacological resultant. The method is general to the extent that it allows analysis of competitive antagonism in combination with all types of post-receptor intervention. Essentially it depends on the altered expression of competition by a reference antagonist. It incorporates tests for validating its application and it is independent of agonist concentration-effect curve shape: in these respects the method is analogous to Schild plot-analysis of simple competition.
The methodology for the practical application of the analysis is exemplified by studying the net effect of a combination of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (isobutylmethylxanthine) and histamine H2- receptor antagonist (metiamide) on histamine-stimulated tachycardia in guinea-pig, isolated, right atrium. Cimetidine was used as the reference antagonist.
The equation used in this analysis is similar in form to one recently described by Hughes & Mackay (1985) to elucidate the situation when competitive antagonism occurs in combination with functional interactions. The relation between their method and the present analysis is discussed.