Multiple role of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase: antioxidative function, H2S and polysulfide production and possible SOx production
Noriyuki Nagahara

Adverse effects of a single dose of gentamicin in adults: a systematic review
Rachel S. Hayward, Jan Harding, Rob Molloy, Lucy Land, Kate Longcroft-Neal, David Moore, Jonathan D. C. Ross

Comparative safety of systemic and low-bioavailability steroids in inflammatory bowel disease: Systematic review and network meta-analysis
Stefanos Bonovas, Georgios K. Nikolopoulos, Theodore Lytras, Gionata Fiorino, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Silvio Danese

Optimal dosing and delivery of parathyroid hormone and its analogues for osteoporosis and hypoparathyroidism – translating the pharmacology
Donovan Tay, Serge Cremers, John P. Bilezikian

Phages of life – the path to pharma
Amanda Forde, Colin Hill

Drug repurposing from the perspective of pharmaceutical companies
Andreas Papapetropoulos, Csaba Szabo

Drug repurposing screens and synergistic drug-combinations for infectious diseases
Wei Zheng, Wei Sun, Anton Simeonov

Opportunities for the repurposing of PARP inhibitors for the therapy of non-oncological diseases
Nathan A Berger, Valerie C Besson, A Hamid Boulares, Alexander Bürkle, Alberto Chiarugi, Robert S Clark, Nicola J Curtin, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson, et al

Targeting phosphodiesterase 5 as a therapeutic option against myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and for treating heart failure
Sevil Korkmaz-Icöz, Tamás Radovits, Gábor Szabó

Update on the pharmacology of calcitonin/CGRP family of peptides: IUPHAR Review 25
Debbie L Hay, Michael L Garelja, David R Poyner, Christopher S Walker


WNT signalling: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities
Gunnar Schulte, Vitezslav Bryja

WNT signalling events near the cell membrane and their pharmacological targeting for the treatment of cancer
Else Driehuis, Hans Clevers

Assembly and architecture of the Wnt/β-catenin signalosome at the membrane
Zachary J DeBruine, H E Xu, Karsten Melcher

Molecular regulation and pharmacological targeting of the β-catenin destruction complex
Eline C van Kappel, Madelon M Maurice

Inhibition of nuclear Wnt signalling: challenges of an elusive target for cancer therapy
Yung Lyou, Amber N Habowski, George T Chen, Marian L Waterman

Pharmacological interventions in the Wnt pathway: inhibition of Wnt secretion versus disrupting the protein–protein interfaces of nuclear factors
Dario Zimmerli, George Hausmann, Claudio Cantù, Konrad Basler

Regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling by tankyrase-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and scaffolding
Laura Mariotti, Katie Pollock, Sebastian Guettler

Rationale for targeting the Wnt signalling modulator Dickkopf-1 for oncology
Michael H Kagey, Xi He

The Dickkopf1-cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 axis creates a novel signalling pathway and may represent a molecular target for cancer therapy
Akira Kikuchi, Katsumi Fumoto, Hirokazu Kimura

Winding back Wnt signalling: potential therapeutic targets for treating gastric cancers
Dustin J Flanagan, Elizabeth Vincan, Toby J Phesse

‘Lnc’-ing Wnt in female reproductive cancers: therapeutic potential of long non-coding RNAs in Wnt signalling
Mei S Ong, Wanpei Cai, Yi Yuan, Hin C Leong, Tuan Z Tan, Asad Mohammad, Ming L You, Frank Arfuso, Boon C Goh, Sudha Warrier, et al

Wnt signalling pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and B-cell lymphomas
Pavlína Janovská, Vítezslav Bryja

Translation of WNT developmental programs into stem cell replacement strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease
Enrique M Toledo, Daniel Gyllborg, Ernest Arenas

Principles of pharmacology in the eye
Sahar Awwad, Abeer H A Mohamed Ahmed, Garima Sharma, Jacob S Heng, Peng T Khaw, Steve Brocchini, Alastair Lockwood

Beyond symptomatic effects: potential of donepezil as a neuroprotective agent and disease modifier in Alzheimer's disease
Seung Hyun Kim, Nagaendran Kandiah, Jung-Lung Hsu, Chuthamanee Suthisisang, Chesda Udommongkol, Amitabh Dash

Nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide: the gasotransmitter paradigm of the vascular system
Giuseppe Cirino, Valentina Vellecco, Mariarosaria Bucci

Unravelling the adiponectin paradox: novel roles of adiponectin in the regulation of cardiovascular disease
Lavinia Woodward, Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades

Current and future therapies for addressing the effects of inflammation on HDL cholesterol metabolism
Fatima Iqbal, Wendy S Baker, Madiha I Khan, Shwetha Thukuntla, Kevin H McKinney, Nicola Abate, Demidmaa Tuvdendorj

Vascular inflammation and low-density lipoproteins: is cholesterol the link? A lesson from the clinical trials
Alberico Luigi Catapano, Angela Pirillo, Giuseppe Danilo Norata

Cytotoxic lymphocytes and atherosclerosis: significance, mechanisms and therapeutic challenges
Tin Kyaw, Karlheinz Peter, Yi Li, Peter Tipping, Ban-Hock Toh, Alex Bobik

Immune checkpoint proteins: exploring their therapeutic potential to regulate atherosclerosis
A C Foks, J Kuiper

Readapting the adaptive immune response – therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis
Andrew P Sage, Ziad Mallat

T-cell immunity in myocardial inflammation: pathogenic role and therapeutic manipulation
E Stephenson, K Savvatis, S A Mohiddin, F M Marelli-Berg

Targeting inflammation to reduce cardiovascular disease risk: a realistic clinical prospect?
Paul Welsh, Gianluca Grassia, Shani Botha, Naveed Sattar, Pasquale Maffia

Trastuzumab cardiotoxicity: from clinical trials to experimental studies
Balazs T Nemeth, Zoltan V Varga, Wen Jin Wu, Pal Pacher

Integrating cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells in safety pharmacology: has the time come?
Luca Sala, Milena Bellin, Christine L Mummery

The role of perivascular adipose tissue in obesity-induced vascular dysfunction
Ning Xia and Huige Li

New actions of an old friend: perivascular adipose tissue's adrenergic mechanisms
Nadia Ayala-Lopez and Stephanie W Watts

Exercise effects on perivascular adipose tissue: endocrine and paracrine determinants of vascular function
B C S Boa, J S Yudkin, V W M van Hinsbergh, E Bouskela and E C Eringa

Pro-contractile effects of perivascular fat in health and disease
J G Ramirez, E J O'Malley and W S V Ho

Perivascular adipose tissue inflammation in vascular disease
Ryszard Nosalski and Tomasz J Guzik

Investigating interactions between epicardial adipose tissue and cardiac myocytes: what can we learn from different approaches?
Katja Rietdorf and Hilary MacQueen

Role of PVAT in coronary atherosclerosis and vein graft patency: friend or foe?
M S Fernández-Alfonso, M Gil-Ortega, I Aranguez, D Souza, M Dreifaldt, B Somoza and M R Dashwood

Comparisons between perivascular adipose tissue and the endothelium in their modulation of vascular tone
K E Zaborska, M Wareing, C Austin

Cognitive deficits caused by prefrontal cortical and hippocampal neural disinhibition
Tobias Bast, Marie Pezze, Stephanie McGarrity

Neurosteroid biosynthesis down-regulation and changes in GABAA receptor subunit composition: a biomarker axis in stress-induced cognitive and emotional impairment
Andrea Locci, Graziano Pinna

Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders
Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Francisco S Guimarães, Carl W Stevenson

Lifestyle use of drugs by healthy people for enhancing cognition, creativity, motivation and pleasure
L-S Camilla d'Angelo, George Savulich, Barbara J Sahakian

The pro-cognitive mechanisms of physical exercise in people with schizophrenia
Joseph Firth, Jack Cotter, Rebekah Carney, Alison R Yung

Glutamatergic regulation of cognition and functional brain connectivity: insights from pharmacological, genetic and translational schizophrenia research
Maria R Dauvermann, Graham Lee, Neil Dawson

The pro-cognitive mechanisms of physical exercise in people with schizophrenia
Joseph Firth, Jack Cotter, Rebekah Carney, Alison R Yung

Translating advances in the molecular basis of schizophrenia into novel cognitive treatment strategies
Colm M P O'Tuathaigh, Paula M Moran, Xuechu C Zhen, John L Waddington

Cross-species studies of cognition relevant to drug discovery: a translational approach
T W Robbins

Hydrogen sulphide as a signalling molecule regulating physiopathological processes in gastrointestinal motility
M Jimenez, V Gil, M Martinez-Cutillas, N Mañé, D Gallego

GABA-ρ receptors: distinctive functions and molecular pharmacology
Moawiah M Naffaa, Sandy Hung, Mary Chebib, Graham A R Johnston, Jane R Hanrahan

Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: emergence of B-cell-targeted therapies
Ai-Lan Nguyen, Melissa Gresle, Tessa Marshall, Helmut Butzkueven, Judith Field

Trafficking and other regulatory mechanisms for organic anion transporting polypeptides and organic anion transporters that modulate cellular drug and xenobiotic influx and that are dysregulated in disease
Michael Murray, Fanfan Zhou

Zebrafish models in neuropsychopharmacology and CNS drug discovery
Kanza M Khan, Adam D Collier, Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Sergey L Khatsko, Tatyana Kolesnikova, Yury Yu Morzherin, Jason E Warnick, Allan V Kalueff, David J Echevarria

Pathological overproduction: the bad side of adenosine
Pier Andrea Borea, Stefania Gessi, Stefania Merighi, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Katia Varani

Serelaxin in clinical development: past, present and future
Elaine Unemori

The actions of relaxin on the human cardiovascular system
Mohsin Sarwar, Xiao-Jun Du, Thomas B Dschietzig, Roger J Summers

Relaxin family peptides: structure–activity relationship studies
Nitin A Patil, K Johan Rosengren, Frances Separovic, John D Wade, Ross A D Bathgate, Mohammed Akhter Hossain

Anti-fibrotic actions of relaxin
C S Samuel, S G Royce, T D Hewitson, K M Denton, T E Cooney, R G Bennett

Synthetic non-peptide low molecular weight agonists of the relaxin receptor 1
Alexander I Agoulnik, Irina U Agoulnik, Xin Hu, Juan Marugan

Relaxin-like peptides in male reproduction – a human perspective
Richard Ivell, Alexander I Agoulnik, Ravinder Anand-Ivell

Vascular actions of relaxin: nitric oxide and beyond
C H Leo, M Jelinic, H H Ng, S A Marshall, J Novak, M Tare, K P Conrad, L J Parry

Relaxin and insulin-like peptide 3 in the musculoskeletal system: from bench to bedside
Alberto Ferlin, Luca De Toni, Marco Sandri, Carlo Foresta

Structural commonality of C1q TNF-related proteins and their potential to activate relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 signalling pathways in cancer cells
Thomas Klonisch, Aleksandra Glogowska, Thatchawan Thanasupawat, Maxwell Burg, Jerry Krcek, Marshall Pitz, Appalaraju Jaggupilli, Prashen Chelikani, G William Wong, Sabine Hombach-Klonisch

Distribution, physiology and pharmacology of relaxin-3/RXFP3 systems in brain
Sherie Ma, Craig M Smith, Anna Blasiak, Andrew L Gundlach

Sex-specific effects of relaxin-3 on food intake and body weight gain
Juliane Calvez, Camila de Ávila, Elena Timofeeva

Relaxin’ the brain: a case for targeting the nucleus incertus network and relaxin-3/RXFP3 system in neuropsychiatric disorders
Jigna Rajesh Kumar, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Tharindunee Jayakody, Subhi Marwari, Jia Mei Hong, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach, Mitchell K P Lai, Gavin S Dawe

Utilizing melatonin to combat bacterial infections and septic injury
Wei Hu, Chao Deng, Zhiqiang Ma, Dongjin Wang, Chongxi Fan, Tian Li, Shouyin Di, Bing Gong, Russel J Reiter, Yang Yang

Crosstalk between sphingolipids and vitamin D3: potential role in the nervous system
Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Federica Pierucci, Ambra Vestri, Elisabetta Meacci

Novel putative pharmacological therapies to protect the right ventricle in pulmonary hypertension: a review of current literature
Gerald J Maarman, Rainer Schulz, Karen Sliwa, Ralph Theo Schermuly, Sandrine Lecour

Treatment and management of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: all roads lead to Rome
Jesus Castro-Marrero, Naia Sáez-Francàs, Dafna Santillo, Jose Alegre

Synaptic Zn2+ and febrile seizure susceptibility
Christopher A Reid, Michael S Hildebrand, Saul A Mullen, Joanne M Hildebrand, Samuel F Berkovic, Steven Petrou

The SPARC protein: an overview of its role in lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis and its potential role in chronic airways disease
Sharon L I Wong and Maria B Sukkar


Understanding how long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists enhance the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma – an update
Robert Newton and Mark A Giembycz

Snapshot: implications for melatonin in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis
Wei Hu, Zhiqiang Ma, Shouyin Di, Shuai Jiang, Yue Li, Chongxi Fan, Yang Yang and Dongjin Wang

The therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the prostate specific membrane antigen/glutamate carboxypeptidase II (PSMA/GCPII) in cancer and neurological disease
James C Evans, Meenakshi Malhotra, John F Cryan and Caitriona M O'Driscoll

Identifying ligands at orphan GPCRs: current status using structure-based approaches
Tony Ngo, Irina Kufareva, James LJ Coleman, Robert M Graham, Ruben Abagyan and Nicola J Smith

Protease-activated receptor 4: from structure to function and back again
Shauna L French and Justin R Hamilton

Sarcolemmal dependence of cardiac protection and stress-resistance: roles in aged or diseased hearts
Louise E See Hoe, Lauren T May, John P Headrick and Jason N Peart

Integrating the GPCR transactivation-dependent and biased signalling paradigms in the context of PAR1 signalling
PJ Little, MD Hollenberg, D Kamato, W Thomas, J Chen, T Wang, W Zheng and N Osman

Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5: molecular pharmacology, allosteric modulation and stimulus bias
K Sengmany and K J Gregory

Superagonism at G protein-coupled receptors and beyond
R Schrage, A De Min, K Hochheiser, E Kostenis and K Mohr

Fluorescence- and bioluminescence-based approaches to study GPCR ligand binding
Leigh A Stoddart, Carl W White, Kim Nguyen, Stephen J Hill and Kevin D G Pfleger

Tumour-selective targeting of drug metabolizing enzymes to treat metastatic cancer
Monika Wierdl, Lyudmila Tsurkan, M Jason Hatfield and Philip M Potter

Mitochondrial dysfunction in inflammatory responses and cellular sensecence: pathogenesis and pharmacological targets for chronic lung diseases
Li Yue and Hongwei Yao

Obestatin as a key regulator of metabolism and cardiovascular function with emerging therapeutic potential for diabetes
Elaine Cowan, Kerry J Burch, Brian D Green and David J Grieve

Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, a new cancer metabokine
Ambra A Grolla, Cristina Travelli, Armando A Genazzani and Jaswinder K Sethi

GPCRdb: the G protein-coupled receptor database – an introduction
C Munk, V Isberg, S Mordalski, K Harpsøe, K Rataj, A S Hauser, P Kolb, A J Bojarski, G Vriend and D E Gloriam

Cannabinoid–dopamine interactions in the physiology and physiopathology of the basal ganglia
Concepción García, Cristina Palomo-Garo, Yolanda Gómez-Gálvez and Javier Fernández-Ruiz

Neuroprotective effects of multifaceted hybrid agents targeting MAO, cholinesterase, iron and β-amyloid in ageing and Alzheimer's disease
Orly Weinreb, Tamar Amit, Orit Bar-Am and Moussa B H Youdim

Amylin structure–function relationships and receptor pharmacology: implications for amylin mimetic drug development
Rebekah L Bower and Debbie L Hay

An update on PPAR activation by cannabinoids
Saoirse Elizabeth O'Sullivan

Present and future pharmacotherapeutic agents in heart failure: an evolving paradigm
Brodie L Loudon, Hannah Noordali, Nicholas D Gollop, Michael P Frenneaux and Melanie Madhani

Possible role for anisodamine in organophosphate poisoning
Arik Eisenkraft and Avshalom Falk

Immunotherapy of cancer: from monoclonal to oligoclonal cocktails of anti-cancer antibodies: IUPHAR Review 18
Silvia Carvalho, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Michael Sela and Yosef Yarden

Adrenaline: insights into its metabolic roles in hypoglycaemia and diabetes
A J M Verberne, W S Korim, A Sabetghadam and I J Llewellyn-Smith

Identification of A3 adenosine receptor agonists as novel non-narcotic analgesics
K Janes, AM Symons-Liguori, K A Jacobson and D Salvemini

On the different experimental manifestations of two-state ‘induced-fit’ binding of drugs to their cellular targets
Georges Vauquelin, Isabelle Van Liefde and David C Swinney

Role of the endocannabinoid system in diabetes and diabetic complications
G Gruden, F Barutta, G Kunos and P Pacher

Effects of P2Y12 receptor antagonists beyond platelet inhibition – comparison of ticagrelor with thienopyridines
Sven Nylander and Rainer Schulz

What is the evidence for the role of TRP channels in inflammatory and immune cells?
A Parenti, F De Logu, P Geppetti and S Benemei

The Warburg effect and drug resistance
Bhaskar Bhattacharya, Mohd Feroz Mohd Omar and Richie Soong

Monoclonal antibodies: the new magic bullets for allergy: IUPHAR Review 17
N Landolina and F Levi-Schaffer

Immunoinflammatory Diseases Of The Central Nervous System - The Tale Of Two Cytokines
M J Hofer And I L Campbell

The Contribution Of Astrocytes And Microglia To Traumatic Brain Injury
Ila P Karve, Juliet M Taylor And Peter J Crack

Microglial M1/M2 Polarization And Metabolic States
Ruben Orihuela, Christopher A McPherson and Gaylia Jean Harry

Inflammation In Acute Cns Injury: A Focus On The Role Of Substance P
F Corrigan, R Vink and R J Turner

Microglial Activation And Progressive Brain Changes In Schizophrenia
L E Laskaris, M A Di Biase, I Everall, G Chana, A Christopoulos, E Skafidas, V L Cropley and C Pantelis

Progressive Inflammation-Mediated Neurodegeneration After Traumatic Brain Or Spinal Cord Injury
Alan I Faden, Junfang Wu, Bogdan A Stoica and David J Loane

COPD And Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: Aberrant Inflammation And Immunity Is The Common Link
Steven Bozinovski, Ross Vlahos, Desiree Anthony, Jonathan McQualter, Gary Anderson, Louis Irving and Daniel Steinfort

Optical Probes Based On G Protein-Coupled Receptors - Added Work Or Added Value?
A D Stumpf and C Hoffmann

Molecular Switches Under Tgf Signalling During Progression From Cardiac Hypertrophy To Heart Failure
J Heger, R Schulz and G Euler